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              header

              <iterator>

              Iterator definitions
              An iterator is any object that, pointing to some element in a range of elements (such as an array or a container), has the ability to iterate through the elements of that range using a set of operators (with at least the increment (++) and dereference (*) operators).

              The most obvious form of iterator is a pointer: A pointer can point to elements in an array, and can iterate through them using the increment operator (++). But other kinds of iterators are possible. For example, each container type (such as a list) has a specific iterator type designed to iterate through its elements.

              Notice that while a pointer is a form of iterator, not all iterators have the same functionality of pointers; Depending on the properties supported by iterators, they are classified into five different categories:

              Iterator categories

              Iterators are classified into five categories depending on the functionality they implement:


              Input and output iterators are the most limited types of iterators: they can perform sequential single-pass input or output operations.

              Forward iterators have all the functionality of input iterators and -if they are not constant iterators- also the functionality of output iterators, although they are limited to one direction in which to iterate through a range (forward). All standard containers support at least forward iterator types.

              Bidirectional iterators are like forward iterators but can also be iterated through backwards.

              Random-access iterators implement all the functionality of bidirectional iterators, and also have the ability to access ranges non-sequentially: distant elements can be accessed directly by applying an offset value to an iterator without iterating through all the elements in between. These iterators have a similar functionality to standard pointers (pointers are iterators of this category).

              The properties of each iterator category are:

              categorypropertiesvalid expressions
              all categoriescopy-constructible, copy-assignable and destructibleX b(a);
              b = a;
              Can be incremented++a
              a++
              Random AccessBidirectionalForwardInputSupports equality/inequality comparisonsa == b
              a != b
              Can be dereferenced as an rvalue*a
              a->m
              OutputCan be dereferenced as an lvalue
              (only for mutable iterator types)
              *a = t
              *a++ = t
              default-constructibleX a;
              X()
              Multi-pass: neither dereferencing nor incrementing affects dereferenceability{ b=a; *a++; *b; }
              Can be decremented--a
              a--
              *a--
              Supports arithmetic operators + and -a + n
              n + a
              a - n
              a - b
              Supports inequality comparisons (<, >, <= and >=) between iteratorsa < b
              a > b
              a <= b
              a >= b
              Supports compound assignment operations += and -=a += n
              a -= n
              Supports offset dereference operator ([])a[n]

              Where X is an iterator type, a and b are objects of this iterator type, t is an object of the type pointed by the iterator type, and n is an integer value.

              For more details, see the references for input iterator, output iterator, forward iterator, bidirectional iterator and random-access iterator.

              Functions

              Iterator operations:

              Iterator generators:

              Classes


              Predefined iterators


              Category tags

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